Research

Theses

Enzinger, E. (2015). Implementation of forensic voice comparison within the new paradigm for the evaluation of forensic evidence. PhD thesis, School of Electrical Engineering & Telcommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. pdf

Enzinger, E. (2009). Formant trajectories in forensic speaker recognition. Mag.phil. thesis, Faculty of Philological and Cultural Studies, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. pdf

Journal articles

Morrison, G. S. & Enzinger, E. (2017). Score based procedures for the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios – Scores should take account of both similarity and typicality. Science & Justice. doi

Enzinger, E. & Morrison, G. S. (2017). Empirical test of the performance of an acoustic-phonetic approach to forensic voice comparison under conditions similar to those of a real case. Forensic Science International, 277, 30–40. doi pdf access until 19 July 2017

Zhang, C., Morrison, G. S., & Enzinger, E. (2016). Use of relevant data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models to calculate a likelihood ratio for a Chinese forensic voice comparison case involving two sisters. Forensic Science International, 267, 115–124. doi PubMed

Morrison, G. S. & Enzinger, E. (2016). Multi-laboratory evaluation of forensic voice comparison systems under conditions reflecting those of a real forensic case (forensic_eval_01) - Introduction. Speech Communication, 85, 119–126. doi

Morrison, G. S., Enzinger, E., & Zhang, C. (2016). Refining the relevant population in forensic voice comparison - A response to Hicks et alii (2015) The importance of distinguishing information from evidence/observations when formulating propositions. Science & Justice, 56 (6), 492 497. doi PubMed

Morrison, G. S. & Enzinger, E. (2016). What should a forensic practitioner's likelihood ratio be? Science & Justice, 56 (5), 374–379. doi PubMed

Enzinger, E., Morrison, G. S., & Ochoa, F. (2016). A demonstration of the application of the new paradigm for the evaluation of forensic evidence under conditions reflecting those of a real forensic-voice-comparison case. Science & Justice, 56 (1), 42–57. doi PubMed audio examples

Enzinger, E. & Morrison, G. S. (2015). Mismatched distances from speakers to telephone in a forensic-voice-comparison case. Speech Communication, 70, 28–41. doi

Zhang, C., Morrison, G. S., Enzinger, E., & Ochoa, F. (2013). Effects of telephone transmission on the performance of formant-trajectory-based forensic voice comparison – female voices. Speech Communication, 55 (6), 796–813. doi

Zhang, C., Morrison, G. S., Ochoa, F., & Enzinger, E. (2013). Reliability of human-supervised formant-trajectory measurement for forensic voice comparison. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133 (1), EL54–EL60. doi PubMed

Conference proceedings papers

Refereed full-paper:

Enzinger, E. (2016). Likelihood ratio calculation in acoustic-phonetic forensic voice comparison: Comparison of three statistical modelling approaches. Proc. Interspeech 2016, San Francisco, California, U.S.A., pp. 535–539. doi pdf slides

Enzinger, E. (2014). A first attempt at compensating for effects due to recording-condition mismatch in formant-trajectory-based forensic voice comparison. Proc. 15th Australasian Intl. Conf. on Speech Science and Technology (SST), Christchurch, New Zealand, pp. 133–136. pdf slides

Enzinger, E. & Kasess, C. H. (2014). Bayesian vocal tract model estimates of nasal stops for speaker verification. Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Florence, Italy, pp. 1685–1689. doi pdf poster

Enzinger, E. (2013). Testing the validity and reliability of forensic voice comparison based on reassigned time-frequency representations of Chinese /iau/. Proc. IEEE Intl. Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS), Guangzhou, China, pp. 13–18. doi pdf slides

Huang, C.-C., Epps, J., & Enzinger, E. (2013). Separate MAP Adaptation of GMM Parameters for Forensic Voice Comparison on Limited Data. Proc. IEEE Intl. Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS), Guangzhou, China, pp. 1–6. doi slides

Enzinger, E. & Kasess, C. H. (2013). Experiments on using Vocal Tract Estimates of Nasal Stops for Speaker Verification. Proc. 7th Intl. Conf. Speech Technology and Human-Computer Dialogue (SpeD), Cluj-Napoca, Romania. doi pdf

Enzinger, E. & Morrison, G. S. (2012). The importance of using between-session test data in evaluating the performance of forensic-voice-comparison systems. Proc. 14th Australasian Intl. Conf. Speech Science and Technology (SST), Sydney, Australia, pp. 137–140. pdf

Kasess, C. H., Kreuzer, W., Enzinger, E., & Kerschhofer-Puhalo, N. (2012). Estimation of the vocal tract shape of nasals using a Bayesian scheme. Proc. 13th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (Interspeech), Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. pdf

Enzinger, E., Zhang, C., & Morrison, G. S. (2012). Voice source features for forensic voice comparison – an evaluation of the GLOTTEX software package. Proc. Odyssey 2012: The Speaker and Language Recognition Workshop, 25–28 June, Singapore, pp. 78–85. pdf errata & addenda

Enzinger, E., Balazs, P., Marelli, D., & Becker, T. (2011). A Logarithmic Based Pole-Zero Vocal Tract Model Estimation for Speaker Verification. Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. Audio, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 4820–4823. doi pdf

Enzinger, E. & Balazs, P. (2011). Speaker Verification using Pole/Zero Estimates of Nasals. Proc. Multi-Conference on Systems & Structures (SysStruc '11), Reşiţa, Romania. pdf

Enzinger, E. (2010). Characterizing Formant Tracks in Viennese Diphthongs for Forensic Speaker Comparison. Proc. AES 39th Intl. Conf. – Audio Forensics, Hillerød, Denmark, pp. 47–52. pdf

Invited:

Grigoras, C., Smith, J. M., Morrison, G. S., & Enzinger, E. (2013). Forensic audio analysis – Review: 2010–2013. In: NicDaéid, N. (Ed.), Proc. 17th International Forensic Science Managers' Symposium, Lyon (pp. 612–633 7). Lyon, France: Interpol. link

Refereed by abstract:

Enzinger, E. (2013). Mismatched distances from speakers to telephone in a forensic-voice-comparison case. Proc. 21st Intl. Congress on Acoustics (ICA), Montréal, Canada (POMA Volume 19, pp. 060039). doi pdf

Zhang, C. & Enzinger, E. (2013). Fusion of multiple formant-trajectory- and fundamental-frequency-based forensic-voice-comparison systems: Chinese /ei1/, /ai2/, and /iau1/. Proc. 21st Intl. Congress on Acoustics (ICA), Montréal, Canada (POMA Volume 19, pp. 060044). doi pdf

Enzinger, E. (2011). Auswirkungen von Sprachcodecs auf Formantmessungen für Sprechervergleiche. Proc. 37th annual conf. of the German Acoustical Society (DAGA). Düsseldorf, Germany, pp. 877–878. pdf

Enzinger, E. (2010). Parametric Diphthong Formant Trajectory Representations for Forensic Speaker Recognition. Proc. 36th annual conf. of the German Acoustical Society (DAGA), March 15–18, 2010, Berlin, Germany, pp. 993–994. pdf

Conference presentations

Refereed abstract:

van der Vloed, D., Morrison, G. S., & Enzinger, E. (2016). Evaluation of Batvox under conditions reflecting those of a real forensic voice comparison case (forensic_eval_01). Accepted for presentation at the 25th Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), July 24–27, 2016, York, U.K. pdf

Walker, R., Proctor, M., Smith, C., & Enzinger, E. (2016). Asymmetries in English Liquid Production and Vowel Interactions. Accepted for presentation at the 15th Conference on Laboratory Phonology (LabPhon15), 13–16 July, 2016, Ithaca, New York, USA. pdf

Morrison, G. S. & Enzinger, E. (2015). A formulation of the new paradigm for the evaluation of forensic evidence and an example of its implementation. 7th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference (EAFS), 6–11 September, 2015, Prague, Czech Republic. link

Moosmüller, S. & Enzinger, E. (2015). How good are they? The dialect performance of Standard Austrian German speakers: The Viennese monophthongisation. 24th Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), July 8–10, 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands. pdf

Jessen, M. & Enzinger, E. (2015). Comparing automatic and semi-automatic methods on a corpus of forensically authentic telephone conversations. 24th Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), July 8–10, 2015, Leiden, the Netherlands. pdf

Enzinger, E. & Morrison, G. S. (2014). A demonstration of the evaluation of forensic evidence under conditions reflecting those of an actual forensic-voice-comparison case. 23rd Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), September 1–3, 2014, Zürich, Switzerland. slides

Enzinger, E. (2014). Mismatch compensation in the evaluation of evidence under conditions reflecting those of an actual forensic-voice-comparison case. 23rd Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), September 1–3, 2014, Zürich, Switzerland. poster

Jessen, M., Enzinger, E., & Jessen, M. (2013). Experiments on Long-Term Formant Analysis with Gaussian Mixture Modeling using VOCALISE. 22nd Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), July 21–24, 2013, Tampa, Florida. pdf

Enzinger, E. & Morrison, G. S. (2012). The effect of session variability on the validity of forensic-voice-comparison systems. 21st Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), August 6–8, 2012, Santander, Spain. pdf

Enzinger, E., Zhang, C., & Morrison, G. S. (2012). Forensic voice comparison using voice source features. 21st Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), August 6–8, 2012, Santander, Spain. slides

Zhang, C., Morrison, G. S., Enzinger, E., & Ochoa, F. (2012). Effects of telephone transmission on the validity of formant-trajectory-based forensic-voice-comparison systems. 21st Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), August 6–8, 2012, Santander, Spain. pdf

Enzinger, E. (2010). Parametric representations of diphthongal formant trajectories of Viennese German /aE/. 19th Conference of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics (IAFPA), July 18–21, 2010, Trier, Germany. pdf

Non-refereed:

Morrison, G. S. & Enzinger, E. (2016). A New Paradigm for Forensic Science and its Implementation in Forensic Voice Comparison. International Biometric Performance Testing Conference 2016, Technical Colloquium: Quantifying the weight of forensic evidence, May 5–6, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD.

Zhang, C., Enzinger E., Morrison, G. S., & Ochoa, F. (2012). Effects of telephone transmission on the validity of formant-trajectory-based forensic-voice-comparison systems. UNSW Forensic Speech Science Conference 2012, December 3, Sydney, Australia. slides

Enzinger, E. & Zhang, C. (2011). Nasal spectra for forensic voice comparison. 162nd Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Oct. 31–Nov. 4, 2011, San Diego, California. doi slides

Enzinger, E. (2010). Measuring the Effects of the Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codecs on formant tracker performance. Second Pan-American/Iberian Meeting on Acoustics, November 15–19, 2010, Cancún, México. doi pdf

Enzinger, E. (2010). The GSM Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec and its effect on formant measurements. ENFSI Working Group for Forensic Speech and Audio Analysis (FSAAWG) Meeting, September 20–21, 2010, Vienna, Austria.

Enzinger, E. (2010). Einfluss des GSM/UMTS Adaptive Multirate (AMR) Sprachcodecs auf Formantmessungen. 60th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society, September 6–10, 2010, Salzburg, Austria.

Brandstätter, J., Enzinger, E., & Moosmüller, S. (2009). Realisierung der Wiener Monophthongierung durch Wiener StandardsprecherInnen. 37. Österreichische Linguistiktagung, December 5–7, 2009, Salzburg, Austria.

Invited presentations & talks

Forensic voice comparison within the new paradigm for the evaluation of evidence. Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 16 August 2016.

Application of speaker recognition techniques in forensic voice comparison. Speech Technology and Research (STAR) Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, 6 June 2016.

Forensic voice comparison within a new paradigm for the evaluation of evidence. Centre for Forensic Science Meeting, University of Technology Sydney, 2 December 2015.

Forensic voice comparison within the new paradigm for the evaluation of evidence. MARCS Monday Evening Research Colloquium, Western Sydney University, 19 Octorber 2015.

Forensic voice comparison in the new paradigm for the evaluation of evidence. Phonetics group meeting, Department of linguistics, Macquarie University, 11 May 2015.

Data & Software

Morrison, G. S., Zhang, C., Enzinger, E., Ochoa, F., Bleach, D., Johnson, M., Folkes, B. K., De Souza, S., Cummins, N., & Chow, D. (2015). Forensic database of voice recordings of 500+ Australian English speakers. link

Enzinger, E. (2015). Database selection software for forensic voice comparison (release 2015-05-25). link

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